Section 2: Theoretical Framework of CLIL, an overview

The following presentation provides some clues of the theoretical framework behind the CLIL methodology. The 4Cs model is more deeply discussed than previously, together with the Bloom's taxonomy, language scaffolding and the Cummins' matrix. Despite this, there are no specific examples yet, as these are being left for following modules.

You will also find a special focus on two of the 4Cs, Cognition and Communication, which are crucial for any CLIL project to achieve success. Cognition is linked with engagement and Communication determines the shape of thoughts of learners. Again, modules 2 and 3 develop in fully detail these concepts.

CLIL Theoretical Framework Alberich Florit by joan_alberich

In case your browser does not allow you to visualize the presentation above, you can access it here in PDF format: clil_theoretical_framework.pdf

The following couple of exercises are linked to the presentantion above. Take your time to complete them.

Exercise 1

Multiple choice

Choose the correct answer (a, b, c or d) to the questions below.

1. From the next statements, choose the one which fits best with what CLIL is:
a) CLIL is addtional subject teaching. b) CLIL is for more able students only.
c) CLIL is flexible to adapt to local conditions and desires. d) CLIL is more suitable for foreign teachers.
2. In the 4Cs framework for CLIL, the 4Cs stand for:
a) Content, Language, Integrated, Learning b) Cognition, Content, Cooperation, Culture
c) Content, Cognition, Cooperation, Communication d) Cognition, Culture, Communication, Content
3. The 4Cs model for CLIL was first established by:
a) Do Coyle b) David Marsh
c) Lev Vygotsky d) Stephen Krashen
4. In Bloom's taxonomy, the High Order Thinking skills are:
a) Applying, Evaluating, Creating b) Creating, Evaluating, Analyzing
c) Understanding, Innovating, Analyzing d) Communicating, Evaluating, Analyzing
5. In Bloom's taxonomy, the Low Order Thinking skills are:
a) Integrating, Remembering, Recapping b) Remembering, Understanding, Analyzing
c) Understanding, Applying, Evaluating d) Understanding, Remembering, Applying
6. To plan the language of a CLIL lesson, the three stages to take into account are:
a) Spontaneity, vocabulary, structures b) Tenses, scaffolding, comparatives
c) Hypotheses, writing frames, language through learning d) Metacognition, cooperative learning, glossaries
7. In Coyle's 3As lesson planning tool, the 3As stand for:
a) Analogy, Addition, Allegory b) Analyse, Add, Apply
c) Apply, Analyse, Advertise d) Analyse, Audit, Apply
8. Explain what the "language FOR learning" is:
a) The language FOR learning is a set of exercises of language scaffolding that helps learners to get confidence with the foreign language of a CLIL lesson. b) The language FOR learning stands for the spontaneous language, not necessarily linked to the content, that arises in a CLIL class.
c) The language FOR learning is the necessary grammar and structures of the foreign language that learners need to communicate to complete the required tasks. d) The language FOR learning relates to the specific vocabulary that learners are being taught in the foreign language linked to the content of the CLIL lesson.
9. Two examples of language scaffolding are:
a) Essays; Tenses b) Reading out loud; Cooperative learning
c) Bloom's taxonomy; Vygotsky's zone of proximal development d) Writing frames; Fill in gaps exercise
10. Explain what the Cummins' matrix is:
a) It is an audit tool for the educative administrators to develop and implement CLIL projects over the schools scattered across a territory. b) It is a mathematical tool with two axes, one of them vertical and the other one horizontal, to plot recorded data in the form of a graph.
c) It is an audit tool that allows learners to visualize their progress in relation to content and communication in their CLIL lessons. d) It is an audit tool that allows teachers to visualize where a planned task is situated in relation to the language and thinking skills demands.

Exercise 2

Matching exercise

Match one of the 4Cs (CONTENT, COMMUNICATION, COGNITION, CULTURE) to the items on the table below.

1. Learners classify masterpieces of art according to several criteria.
2. The teacher highlights the names of the bones of the human skeleton from a Science text which the class has just read.
3. Learners go to the local museum of their town to find out about the lifestyles of their ancestors in the past.
4. Learners formulate hypotheses of the outcome of an experiment.
5. Learners discuss in pairs how they solved a Maths problem.
6. Learners find out about different ways of celebrating the winter solstice across the world.
7. Learners give power point presentations about their web search project.

Have you noticed? The above couple of exercises can be placed in the lowest categories of Bloom's taxonomy: the first one is a remembering task, while the second one is an understanding task.